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The study of Sumerian culture introduced by the present volume, Sumerian Mythologyis to be based largely on Sumerian literary sources; it will consist of the formulation of the spiritual and religious concepts of the Sumerians, together with the reconstructed text and translation of the Sumerian literary compositions in which these concepts are revealed.

It is therefore very essential that the reader have a clear picture of the nature of our source material, which consists primarily of some three thousand tablets and fragments inscribed in the Sumerian language and dated approximately B. After a very brief general evaluation of the contents of the dating millennium style mass of Sumerian tablet material uncovered in the course of these excavations, it turns to the Sumerian literary tablets which represent the basic material for our study, and analyzes in some detail the scope and date of their contents.

The Introduction then concludes with a description of the factors which prevented in large part the trustworthy reconstruction and translation of the Sumerian literary compositions in the past; the details, not uninteresting in themselves, furnish a revealing and illuminating commentary on the course and progress of one of the more significant humanistic efforts of our generation.

For in the case of Egypt, Assyria, and Babylonia, the investigating scholars of western Europe had at their disposal much relevant material from Biblical, classical, and postclassical sources.

Not only were such names as Egypt, Ashur, and Babylon well known, but at least to a certain extent and with much limitation and qualification, even the culture of the peoples was not altogether unfamiliar, dating millennium style. In the case of the Sumerians, however, the situation was quite different; there was no clearly recognizable trace of Sumer or its people and language in the entire Biblical, classical, and post-classical literature.

The very name Sumer was erased from the mind and memory of man for over two thousand years. The discovery of the Sumerians and their language came quite unexpectedly and was quite unlooked for; and this more or less irrelevant detail was at least partially responsible for the troubled progress of Sumerology from the earliest days to the present moment.

Historically, the decipherment of Sumerian resulted from that of Accadian, which in turn followed the decipherment of cuneiform Persian. Briefly sketched, the process was as follows. Inthe Danish traveler and scholar, Carsten Niebuhr, succeeded in making careful copies of several inscriptions on the monuments of Persepolis. These were published between the years andand were soon recognized as trilingual, that is, the same inscriptions seemed to be repeated in three different languages.

It was not unreasonable to assume, since the monuments were located in Persepolis, that they were inscribed by one or more kings of the Achaemenid dynasty and that the first version in each inscription was in the Persian language.

Fortunately, at approximately the same time, Old Persian was becoming known to western European scholars through the efforts of Duperron, who had studied in India under the Parsees and was preparing translations of the Avesta. And so bywith the help of the newly acquired knowledge of Old Persian and by keen manipulation of the.

Additions and corrections were made by numerous scholars in the ensuing years. But the crowning achievement belongs to the Englishman H. A member of the English Intelligence Service, Rawlinson was first stationed in India, where he mastered the Persian language.

In he was transferred to Persia, where he learned of the huge trilingual inscription on the rock of Behistun and determined to copy it. During the yearsat the risk of life and limb, Rawlinson succeeded in copying lines of the Persian version.

He returned in and completed the copying of the Persian as well as the Elamite version. The Accadian inscription, however, was so situated that it was impossible for him to copy it, and it was not until that he succeeded in making squeezes of the text, dating millennium style. To return to the decipherment of cuneiform Persian, by Rawlinson published his memoir in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Societywhich gave the transliteration and translation of the Persian version of the Behistun inscription together with a copy of the cuneiform original.

Long before the final decipherment of the Persian text, however, great interest had been aroused in western Europe by the third version of the Persepolis inscriptions. For it was soon recognized that this was the script and language found in numerous inscriptions and bricks, clay tablets, and clay cylinders which were finding their way into Europe from sites that might well be identified with Nineveh and Babylon.

Inscribed monuments were being found in large quantities at all three sites; moreover. Bytherefore, Europe had scores of inscriptions coming largely from Dating millennium style sites, made in the very same script and language as the third version of the Persepolis and Behistun inscriptions.

The decipherment of this language was simplified on the one hand by the fact that it was recognized quite early in the process that it belonged to the Semitic group of dating millennium style. On the other hand, it was complicated by the fact that the orthography, as was soon recognized, was syllabic and ideographic rather than alphabetic. The leading figure in the decipherment of Accadian, or Assyrian as it was then designated, was the Rhino dating sites scholar Edward Hincks.

But once again a major contribution was made by Rawlinson. In he published the text, transliteration, and translation of the Accadian version of the Behistun inscription, the large trilingual to whose text he alone had access. As for the second, or Elamite version, of the Behistun inscription, it offered relatively little difficulty as soon as progress was made in the decipherment of Accadian, since it uses a syllabary based on the Accadian dating millennium style of writing.

The major figures in its decipherment were Westergaard and Norris. As will be noted, nothing has yet been heard or said of the Sumerians. As early ashowever, Hincks began to doubt that the Semitic inhabitants of Assyria and Babylonia had invented the cuneiform system of writing.

In the Semitic languages the stable element is the consonant while the vowel is extremely variable. It seemed unnatural, therefore, that the Semites should invent a syllabic system of orthography in which the vowel seemed to be as unchanging as the consonant.

Moreover, if the Semites had. But this was hardly ever the case; the syllabic values all seemed to go back to words or elements for which no Semitic equivalent could be found. Hincks thus began to suspect that the cuneiform system of writing was invented by a non-Semitic people who had preceded the Semites in Mesopotamia. In Rawlinson published a memoir in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society in which he speaks of his discovery of non-Semitic inscriptions on bricks and tablets from sites in southern Babylonia such as Nippur, Larsa, and Erech.

In Hincks took up the problem of this new language, recognized that it was agglutinative in character, and gave the first examples from bilinguals which had come to the British Museum from the Nineveh excavations. The name of the language was variously designated as Scythic or even Accadian, that is, the very name now given to the Semitic tongue spoken in Assyria and Babylonia.

Inhowever, the French scholar Oppert, basing himself on the royal title, "king of Sumer and Accad," and realizing that Accad referred to the land inhabited by the Semitic population, rightly attributed the name Sumerian to the language spoken by the non-Semitic people who had invented the cuneiform script. Nevertheless, Oppert was not immediately followed by the majority of the Assyriologists, and the name Accadian continued to be used for Sumerian for many years. For several decades following the discovery of the existence of Sumerian, practically all the source material for its decipherment and study consisted of the bilinguals and syllabaries from the so-called Ashurbanipal library which was discovered and excavated at Nineveh.

This material dates from the seventh century B. As for the material from the Sumerian sites, it consisted almost entirely of a very small group of bricks, tablets, and cylinders from the Sumerian and post-Sumerian periods which had found their way into the British Museum.

The Sumerians were a non-Semitic, non-Indo-European people who probably entered Mesopotamia from the east prior to or during the fourth millennium B. At the time of the Sumerian invasion much of the land between the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers was no doubt inhabited by the Semites, and the entrance of the Sumerians marked the beginning of a struggle between the two peoples for control of the two-river land, which lasted for some two millennia.

To judge from our present data, victory first fell to the Sumerians. There is reason to assume that at one time the Sumerians edmonton senior dating website in control of the better part of Mesopotamia and that they even carried their conquests into more distant lands. It was no doubt during this period of conquest and power in the fourth millennium B.

This material progress, dating millennium style, together with the growth and development of the spiritual and religious concepts which accompanied it, must have left an enduring impress on all the peoples of the Near East who came in contact with the Sumerians during the fourth millennium.

But the early defeat of the Semites by the Sumerians did not mark the end of the struggle between the two peoples for the control of Mesopotamia. No doubt with the help of new invasion hordes from the Arabian peninsula, the Semites gradually regained some of their strength and became ever more aggressive.

And so in the first part of the third millennium we find the Sumerians being gradually pushed back to the more southerly portion of Mesopotamia, roughly from Nippur to the Persian Gulf on our map. North of Nippur the Semites seemed well entrenched. Approximately in the middle of the third millennium arose the great Semitic conqueror, Sargon, the founder of the dynasty of Accad. He and the kings that followed him attacked and badly defeated the Sumerians to the south, making it a practice, moreover, to carry off many of their victims into captivity and to settle Semites in their places, dating millennium style.

This defeat marked the beginning of the end for the Sumerians. It is true that toward the very end of the third millennium the Sumerians made a final attempt at political control of Mesopotamia, and under the so-called "Third Dynasty of Ur" met with a certain initial success.

However, the important role played by the Semites even in this "Neo-Sumerian" kingdom, which lasted for no more than a century, is indicated by the fact that the last three kings of the dynasty bore Semitic names.

With the destruction of Ur, their last capital, in approximately B. Not long afterwards, the Amurru, a Semitic people who had begun to penetrate into lower Mesopotamia toward the end of the third millennium, established the city of Babylon as their capital, and under such rulers as Hammurabi succeeded in obtaining temporary sway over Mesopotamia.

Because of the prominence of Babylon in the second and first millennia B. For description, see opposite page. Ancient sites, ancient names in vertical lettering. Ancient sites, modern names in oblique lettering. It was at this site that the first important Sumerian monuments were excavated, the objects and inscriptions of the ishakkus or princes of Lagash.

Here more than one hundred thousand tablets and fragments were dug up, dating from the pre-Sargonid and Ur III periods. The second major excavation on a Sumerian site was that conducted by the University of Pennsylvania, the first American expedition to excavate in Mesopotamia.

All through the most popular european dating apps of the nineteenth century discussions had been going on in American university circles pertaining to the feasibility of sending an American expedition to Iraq, where both British and French had been making extraordinary finds.

It was not untilhowever, that John P. Peters, professor of Hebrew in the University of Pennsylvania, succeeded in obtaining moral and financial support from various individuals in and about the university, for the purpose of equipping and carbon dating errors an excavating expedition in.

In the history of American archaeology, the Nippur expedition, organized by the University of Pennsylvania more than 50 yean ago, will always be remembered with special interest and regard. For it was the Nippur excavations, supported over a number of years by a relatively small group of Philadelphians of unusual vision and understanding, which were responsible to no small extent for making America "archaeology-conscious. The ruins of Nippur, among the largest in southern Mesopotamia, cover approximately acres.

They are divided into two well-nigh equal parts by the now dry bed of the Shatt-en-Nil, a canal which at one time branched off from the Euphrates and watered and fructified the otherwise barren territory through which it flowed.

The eastern half contains the temple structures, including the ziggurat and the group of buildings which must have dating millennium style the scribal school and library; it is in this part of the mound that the "tablet house" was excavated. The western half seems to mark the remains of the city proper. Nippur, one of the largest and most important mounds in Iraq, was chosen, and four long and extremely difficult excavating campaigns were conducted during the years,and The hardships and handicaps were severe and discouraging, dating millennium style.

One young archaeologist died in the field, and there was hardly a year in which one or the other of the dating millennium style of the expedition did not suffer from serious illness.

Difficulties with the Arab tribes were not infrequent and at times assumed a most threatening character. In spite of the obstacles, however, the excavating continued, and in the course of the four campaigns which lasted more than a decade, the expedition achieved magnificent and in some respects unparalleled results, at least dating millennium style the inscriptional field.

The Nippur expedition succeeded in excavating approximately thirty thousand tablets and fragments in the course progressive muslim dating its four campaigns, the larger part of which are inscribed in the Sumerian language and date from the second half of the dating meetups mumbai millennium to the first half of the second millennium B. The contents of these tablets are rich and gay dating site serious relationship. The greater part is economic in character; it consists of contracts and bills of sale, promissory notes and receipts, lists and accounts, wills, adoptions, court decisions, and other legal and administrative documents.

Many of the tablets are letters; some are historical inscriptions; still others are lexical in character, that is, they contain Sumerian dictionary and grammatical material of priceless value for our study of the language, since they were actually compiled by the ancient scribes themselves. But especially noteworthy is the large group of tablets dated about B.

After Nippur, the excavations by the Germans at Fara the ancient "flood" city Shuruppak in and those by the University of Chicago at Bismaya ancient. Excavations at Kish, begun by the French in and continued under Anglo-American auspices from todating millennium style, have yielded important inscriptional material. In Jemdet Nasr, not far from Kish, a large group of semi-pictographic tablets that go back to the early beginnings of Sumerian writing were uncovered.

Ur, the famous site excavated by a joint expedition of the British Museum and the University Museum between the years andyielded many historical and economic inscriptions and some literary material.

In Asmar ancient Eshnunna and Khafaje, east of the Tigris, a large number of economic tablets dating largely from the Sargonid and Ur III periods, that is, the latter part of the third millennium B. Finally in Erech, where the Germans conducted excavations from until the outbreak of the war, a large group of pictographic tablets antedating even those found at Jemdet Nasr has been uncovered.


But this was hardly ever the case; the syllabic values all seemed to go back to words or elements for which no Semitic equivalent could be found. Search through your address book, call people you haven't spoken to in years and say: Hymn to Enlil, the air-god. Planet infowars dating that one and you will have to wait dating millennium style and ! Standard time in "time zones" was not established in U. Offsetting this disadvantage is the happy fact that the ancient scribes made more than one copy of any given composition. The idea was first advocated seriously by a London builder, William Willettin the pamphlet "Waste of Daylight" that proposed advancing clocks 20 minutes on each of four Sundays in April, and retarding them by the same amount on four Sundays in September. An earlier report suggested that online dating businesses were thriving financially, dating millennium style, with growth in members, service offerings, membership fees and with many users renewing their accounts, dating millennium style, although the overall share of Internet traffic using online dating services in the U. But whether or not it was the Sumerians who invented the script, it was certainly they who in the course of the third millennium B. Or as Bill Maher more crudely but usefully summed it up FacebookSkypeWhatsappand other applications have made remote connections possible. The Nippur expedition succeeded in excavating approximately thirty thousand tablets and fragments in the course of its four campaigns, the larger part of which are inscribed in the Sumerian language and date from the second half of the third millennium to the first speed dating for 70 year olds of the second millennium B. No doubt with the help of new invasion hordes from the Arabian peninsula, the Semites gradually regained some of their strength and became ever more aggressive. Communities exerted pressure on people to form pair-bonds in places such as Europe ; in Chinasociety "demanded people get married before having a sexual relationship" [6] and many societies found that some formally recognized bond between a man and a woman was the best way of rearing and educating children as well as helping to avoid conflicts and misunderstandings regarding competition for mates. One account suggests that the dating scene in Beijing is "sad" with particular difficulties for expatriate Chinese women hoping to find romance. He entered into an unhappy arranged marriage with a Parsi widow with two children. Mystery Date is a board game from the Milton Bradley Companyoriginally released in and reissued in, and inwhose object is to be ready for a date by acquiring three matching color-coded cards to assemble an outfit. North of Nippur the Semites seemed well entrenched. Dating Philosophy of love. In addition they also drew up interlinears of the Sumerian literary compositions in which each Sumerian line is followed by its Accadian translation. If you are rejected or ignored, remember that it is not about you. It is only in the last. Even parents approve, because young people get to know each other — without physical contact! These tablets, relatively few in number, indicate that the Canaanites, too, had a highly developed literature at one time. The Saudi Gazette quoted a Wikipedia article on domestic violencesuggesting it was an issue for Saudis, including abusive behavior while dating by one or both partners. One of the most useful types is the "Chicago" syllabary, a scientific edition of which was recently published by Richard Hallock, of the Oriental Institute. It's looked on more positively in the U.